Publications and Noodles Documents

Toxicovigilance systems and practices in Africa

2016. Pouokam GB, H. Hamed; R. Ngwafor, C. Frazzoli. Toxicovigilance systems and practices in Africa. Toxics. 4: 13; doi:10.3390/toxics4030013 African consumers and citizens are growingly aware of the wide range of toxic poisoning scenarios from different...

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One health perspective in trace elements biomonitoring

2015. C Frazzoli, B Bocca, A Mantovani. The one health perspective in trace elements biomonitoring. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part B:Critical Reviews 18(7-8):344-70 Health risks in both animals and humans are...

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Sustainable food safety and toxicant zoonoses

2016. C Frazzoli, A Mantovani, R Esposito. Sustainable food safety and toxicant zoonoses: new prevention challenges in global health governance. Quadernidella Società Italiana di Medicina Tropicale e Salute Globale, 1: 117-127. The concept of Sustainable...

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2014. GB Pouokam, GC Ajaezi, I Proietti, A Mantovani, OE Orisakwe, C Frazzoli. The dumping in Africa of banned products: a recent pilot enquiry on baby bottles [Italian]. Notiziario dell’Istituto Superiore di Sanità 27; 9: 11-13

The use and marketing of plastics containing Bisphenol A (BPA) for baby bottles production has been banned or restricted in many industrialized countries because of potential long-term risks for infants. Data of this pilot survey indicate that in Cameroon and Nigeria baby bottles containing BPA are available, affordable and easily accessible, and suggest a potentially widespread exposure to BPA in young children. The results raise safety issues concerning food and products for children in large urban communities in Africa, associated with both the import of products banned in other countries and the absence of information and communication, at different community levels, on possible toxicological risks due to certain usage patterns.

2013. I. Proietti, DV Hoang, A. Mantovani, C. Frazzoli. Protecting Vietnamese street food. New Agriculturalist. Global Forum on Agricultural Research

2012. C Frazzoli, EA Asongalem, OE Orisakwe (ed.). Cameroon-Nigeria-Italy scientific cooperation: veterinary public health and sustainable food safety to promote “one health/one prevention”. Roma: Istituto Superiore di Sanità; Rapporti ISTISAN 12/49

Sub-Saharan Africa has often adopted a short-term view of human development relying on external financial support, whereas limited resources are invested in scientific research, technology, prevention and innovation as drivers of social and economic growth and long-term sustainable development. In a continent where products of animal origin have become fundamental in human diet, veterinary public health and food safety are called to face toxicological risk factors related to food-chain contamination, in particular those triggering poor health burden through vertical (mother to child) exposure. This report summarizes the current items of the Cameroon-Nigeria-Italy experience of scientific cooperation pivoting on a network crosscutting public institutions, universities, NGOs and social, professional and scientific organizations. The network promotes a “social toxicology based on the proactive capability of local communities to widen the field of international cooperation to the prevention early in life of chronic multi-factorial diseases. This will contribute towards the mitigation of infant morbidity and mortality, the increase of healthy life expectancy in children and adults as well as the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals.

2012. O.E. Orisakwe, E.A. Asongalem, C. Frazzoli. Scientific research in veterinary public health as driver for development. In: C. Frazzoli, E.A. Asongalem, O.E. Orisakwe (ed.). Cameroon-Nigeria-Italy scientific cooperation: veterinary public health and sustainable food safety to promote “one health/one prevention”. Rapporti ISTISAN 12/49

2012. C. Frazzoli, S. Lorenzetti, A. Mantovani. Sustainable food safety and trans-generational health outcomes in developing economies. In: C. Frazzoli, E.A. Asongalem, O.E. Orisakwe (ed.). CameroonNigeria-Italy scientific cooperation: veterinary public health and sustainable food safety to promote one health/one prevention”. Rapporti ISTISAN 12/49, pp. 27-33

2012. C. Frazzoli. Trade not aid: challenges for market drivers of safe foods in Africa. In: C. Frazzoli, E.A. Asongalem, O.E. Orisakwe (ed.). Cameroon-Nigeria-Italy scientific cooperation: veterinary public health and sustainable food safety to promote one health/one prevention”. Rapporti ISTISAN 12/49, pp. 60-69

2012. O.E. Orisakwe, C. Frazzoli. Solid waste and waste management issues in sub Saharan Africa: a focus on Nigeria. In: C. Frazzoli, E.A. Asongalem, O.E. Orisakwe (ed.). Cameroon-Nigeria-Italy scientific cooperation: veterinary public health and sustainable food safety to promote one health/one prevention”. Rapporti ISTISAN 12/49, pp. 115-121

2012. O.E. Orisakwe, C. Frazzoli. Potable water supply and environmental pollution in south-south Nigeria: a bird’s eye-view. In: C. Frazzoli, E.A. Asongalem, O.E. Orisakwe (ed.). CameroonNigeria-Italy scientific cooperation: veterinary public health and sustainable food safety to promote one health/one prevention”. Rapporti ISTISAN 12/49, pp. 107-114

2012. Wilfred Angie Abia, Guy Bertrand Pouokam. Community health risk perception, behavioral exposure and risk communication. In: C. Frazzoli, E.A. Asongalem, O.E. Orisakwe (ed.). Cameroon-Nigeria-Italy scientific cooperation: veterinary public health and sustainable food safety to promote one health/one prevention”. Rapporti ISTISAN 12/49

2012. G.B. Pouokam, G.C. Ajaezi, C. Frazzoli, O.E. Orisakwe, A. Mantovani. Dumping of banned baby bottles from advanced economies: an overlooked hazard for African infants? In: C. Frazzoli, E.A. Asongalem, O.E. Orisakwe (ed.). Cameroon-Nigeria-Italy scientific cooperation: veterinary public health and sustainable food safety to promote one health/one prevention”. Rapporti ISTISAN 12/49, pp. 180-188

2012. Frazzoli C, Asongalem EA, Orisakwe OE. Africa and scientific “prevention, education and research” networking: concluding remarks. In: Frazzoli C, Asongalem EA, Orisakwe OE, ed. Cooperazione scientifica CamerunNigeria-Italia: la sanità pubblica veterinaria e la sicurezza alimentare sostenibile per la promozione della one health/one prevention”. Roma: Istituto Superiore di Sanità; (Rapporti ISTISAN 12/49). P.197-198

2010. C. Frazzoli, O.E. Orisakwe, R. Dragone, A. Mantovani. Diagnostic health risk assessment of ewaste on the general population in developing countries’ scenarios. Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 30:388–399

E-waste is the generic name for technological waste. Even though aspects related to e-waste environmental pollution and human exposure are known, scientific assessments are missing so far on the actual risks for health sustainability of the general population exposed to e-waste scenarios, such as illicit dumping, crude recycling and improper treatment and disposal. In fact, further to occupational and direct local exposure, e-waste scenarios may impact on the environment-to-food chain, thus eliciting a widespread and repeated exposure of the general population to mixtures of toxicants, mainly toxic chemical elements, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and persistent organic pollutants. In the absence of any clear policy on e-waste flow management, the situation in the e-waste receiver countries may become quite scary; accordingly, here we address a diagnostic risk assessment of health issues potentially elicited by e-waste related mixtures of toxicants.

Scientific evidence available so far (mainly from China) is discussed with special attention to the concept of health sustainability, i.e. the poor health burden heritage perpetuated through the mother-to-child dyad. Endocrine disruption and neurotoxicity are specifically considered as examples of main health burden issues relevant to perpetuation through life cycle and across generations; toxicological information are considered along with available data on environmental and food contamination and human internal exposure. The risk from exposure to e-waste related mixtures of toxicants of vulnerable subpopulation like breast-fed infants is given special attention. The diagnostic risk assessment demonstrates how e-waste exposure poses an actual public health emergency, as it may entrain significant health risks also for generations to come. Exposure scenarios as well as specific chemicals of major concern may vary in different contexts; for instance, only limited information is available on e-waste related exposures in a major site of e-waste dumping such as West Africa. Therefore, considerations are also given on data gaps possibly fitting a systematic risk assessment of the e-waste health impacts in different subscenarios as well as possible protective factors for exposed sub-populations.

2010 O.E. Orisakwe, C. Frazzoli. Electronic revolution and electronic wasteland: the west / waste Africa experience. Journal of Natural & Environmental Sciences 1:43-47

In the name of bridging the digital divide between the developed world and countries in Africa, the African continent has become the world‘s latest destination for obsolete electrical equipment. The toxic nature of e-waste being transported to the continent, coupled with lack of efficient waste management system in the affected countries, has made the hazard transfer a subject of increasing global importance. E-waste is defined as a generic term encompassing various forms of electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) that are old, end-of-life (EOL) electronic appliances and have ceased to be of any value to their owner,‖ which is by far the best definition as of now. Given the volume of e-waste generated containing toxic materials, it is emerging as a risk to the society. Toxic pollutants are generated especially when e-waste is burned or recycled in uncontrolled manner.

2010. Orisakwe, C. Frazzoli. Water supply in Niger Delta of Nigeria: from public protests to scientific discourse. NOVA Science Publisher, Inc., NY, Series: Water Resource Planning, Development and Management. ISBN 978-1-61728-618-6

The World Bank predicts that two-thirds of the world’s population will not have enough fresh drinking water by the year 2025. Instead of protecting existing supplies, promoting conservation or helping vulnerable populations, many governments are turning to private companies, often large transnational corporations, to fix their water woes. There is growing concern among communities, therefore, that as water resources move from being a Public good to the hands of private interests, more poor people will be left to go thirsty. In developing countries, most of which have huge debt burdens, population explosion and moderate-to-rapid urbanization, people have little or no option but to accept water sources of doubtful quality, due to lack of better alternative sources, or due to economic and technological constraints to treat the available water adequately before use.

The Nigerian government has been urged to declare the oil-rich Niger Delta a disaster zone and deploy an emergency water supply network immediately to the area to develop the nations vast surface and groundwater resources. The chapters of this book summary the available scientific data on pathogens and chemicals found in the Niger delta water.

2010. C. Frazzoli, A. Mantovani. Toxicants exposures as novel zoonoses: reflections on sustainable development, food safety and veterinary public health. Zoonoses and Public Health, 57:e136e142

The modern concept of zoonosis considers any detriment to the health and/or quality of human life resulting from relationships with (other) vertebrate or edible or toxic invertebrate animals. Whereas exposure to toxicants through foods of animal origin (a.o.) is a well-established issue, hereby we discuss it as novel zoonoses, from the standpoints of health implications as well as similarities and differences with classical zoonoses caused by biological agents. Novel toxicant-related zoonoses are linked with new issues in food safety, such as the environment-feed-food chain. In fact, the potential effect of the combined and repeated exposure to dietary toxicants is generally long-term and not readily discernible. Endocrine disrupting chemicals in staple foods of a.o. are discussed as a telling example of a food safety issue summing up critical points covered by the definition of sustainable development, also implicating health risks for generations to come. We suggest some critical points to implement the veterinary public health action in sustainable food safety, such as enhancement of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points systems for toxicological risk management.

2009. C. Frazzoli, C. Petrini, A. Mantovani. Sustainable development and next generation’s health: a long-term perspective about the consequences of today’s activities for food safety. Annali dell’Istituto Superiore di Sanità, 45:6575

Development is defined sustainable when it meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Pivoting on social, environmental and economic aspects of food chain sustainability, this paper presents the concept of sustainable food safety based on the prevention of risks and burden of poor health for generations to come. Under this respect, the assessment of long-term, transgenerational risks is still hampered by serious scientific uncertainties. Critical issues to the development of a sustainable food safety framework may include: endocrine disrupters as emerging contaminants that specifically target developing organisms; toxicological risks assessment in Countries at the turning point of development; translating knowledge into toxicity indexes to support risk management approaches, such as hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP); the interplay between chemical hazards and social determinants. Efforts towards the comprehensive knowledge and management of key factors of sustainable food safety appear critical to the effectiveness of the overall sustainability policies.

2009. C. Frazzoli, A. Mantovani. Interferenti endocrini e produzioni agroalimentari dei paesi in via di sviluppo. Qualità e sicurezza alimentare. Dal campo alla tavola: periodico di approfondimento sull’igiene e il controllo agroalimentare, Anno

2, 7:1213

2010. A. Mantovani, C. Frazzoli, F. Cubadda. Organic forms of trace elements as feed additives: assessment of benefits and risks for farm animals and consumers. Pure and Applied Chemistry, 82:393-407

Essential trace elements (TEs) are major nutritional feed additives, required for the health and welfare of farm animals, especially under intensive husbandry conditions. Within the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), risk assessment of feed additives is carried out by the Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP),

which is increasingly confronted with additives based on organic forms of TEs. Organic forms are expected to have higher bioavailability, hence, lower levels in feeds may be needed to meet farm animal requirements. On the other hand, higher bioavailability might also lead to enhanced deposition in edible tissues, hence, increased consumer exposure; specific organic forms might also have a different distribution in edible tissues or products. Higher consumer exposure is especially relevant to TEs with recognized health risks at excess levels (e.g., Se); exposure scenarios should take into account background dietary levels and other intake sources (e.g., supplements). Tolerable upper intake levels (ULs) for adults and children are the basis for risk assessment; when no UL is defined (e.g., for Mn), a conservative estimate should assess whether the organic form in feeds might significantly increase the consumer’s intake above the dietary background. In perspective, specific maximum allowable contents might be considered for organic forms of TEs in feeds, when supported by a robust database as well as by targeted analytical methods.

2010. A. Mantovani, C. Frazzoli. Risk assessment of toxic contaminants in animal feed. CAB Reviews: Perspectives in Agriculture, Veterinary Science, Nutrition and Natural Resources, 5, 046:1-14

Feed contaminants are a broad issue ranging from undesirable or unauthorized feed components or additives through to environmental pollutants and to contaminants related to specific steps of food production, such as storage or cross-contamination. In many cases, e.g. most mycotoxins and plant-derived compounds, feed contaminants may pose a risk mostly for farm animal welfare; however, feeds can also be a major vehicle for the presence of bioaccumulating pollutants in human diet, especially for vulnerable farm animal productions, such as aquaculture or grazing ruminants. Critical risk assessment issues include the characterization of toxicological hazards, the possible pathways of feed contamination and the carry-over of parent compound or metabolites to foods of animal origin as well as the pinpointing of situations that may require risk management measures. Some examples are considered in detail, taking into account the assessments performed by the European Food Safety Authority: cross-contamination by coccidiostats, the endocrinedisrupting mycotoxin zearalenone, the trace element Cr(III) and the persistent organic pollutant hexaclorobenzene. Emerging issues, such as the widespread, bioaccumulating brominated flame retardants and the potentially undesirable high levels of phytooestrogens, are also discussed. Diagnostic health risk assessment, considered as a tool for decision-making in field situations, is also reviewed with regard to unavoidable, long-standing (e.g. methylmercury) and short-term contamination instances. Management of feed contaminants relies primarily on the implementation of good practice in feed production; specific research needs may target feed sources less prone to contamination as well as safe and effective detoxifying agents. Overall, the risk assessment of feed contaminants has a critical role in veterinary public health both as a basis to define the reference thresholds for prevention, as well as guidance for risk diagnosis and field intervention in contamination events.

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