2015. A Mantovani, D Ferrari, C Frazzoli. Sustainability, security and safety in the feed-to-fish chain: focus on toxic contamination. International Journal ofNutrition and Food Sciences 4(2-2): 6-24
The paper discusses the issue of feed ingredients in aquaculture as a telling example of implementation of a sustainable food safety strategy, aimed at protecting the health of next generation, under the One Health paradigm. Finfish and fishery products are a main nutrition security component as a valuable source of animal protein, particularly in developing countries. In addition, they are a critical source of essential oligo-nutrients, such as polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) andiodine. Production and consumption of fish has greatly increased in the last decade, mostly due to the growth ofaquaculture. While the demand for aquaculture products continues to increase, there is the need to address consumers’concerns related to the nutritional quality and safety. In fact, both wild and farmed finfish can represent a significant sourceof exposure to contaminants for the consumer: noticeably, caught and farmed fish have a comparable content of nutrientsand contaminants. Aquaculture feeds made of fish meal and fish oil are the main vehicle for transfer of environmentalpollutants to farmed fish. The main fish contaminants (e.g., methylmercury, PCBs, PBDE) can bioaccumulate and affect development in humans. Feed ingredients as well fish species have a different liability to contamination depending, e.g., onthe lipophilicity of the specific chemicals. Up–to–date risk-benefit assessments show that high intake of fish may lead to anundesirable intake of pollutants which is not sufficiently balanced by the concurrent intake of protective nutrients, such asPUFA. The use of vegetable–based feed ingredients in aquaculture has been explored from the standpoints of economicsustainabilit and fish productivity to a greater extent than from those of food safety and nutritional value. Available data show that vegetable oils can significantlymodulate the lipid profile in fish flesh, depending on the oil and fish species. The use of vegetable ingredients can drastically reduce the accumulation of the maincontaminants in fish; likewise the presence of other “unconventional” contaminants (e.g. PAHs) and the nutritional value of fish flesh could deserve more attention inthe assessment of novel aquaculture feeds.