2015. C Frazzoli, B Bocca, A Mantovani. The one health perspective in trace elements biomonitoring. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part B:Critical Reviews 18(7-8):344-70

Geomedicine and Transgenerational HealthHealth risks in both animals and humans are associated with chronic exposures to levels of trace elements (TE)eliciting toxic and/or antinutritional effects, including excess exposures to some essential elements. Interferences with essential TE may also lead to secondary nutritional deficiencies and/or imbalances. Although research is still requiredbiomarkers of exposure, including bioavailability, for TE are established tools for human biomonitoring that can also be applied to animal surveillance. Biomarkers of effect as well as, where available, of susceptibility andbioavailability are necessary to understand whether an ongoing exposure may pose a current or future healthconcern. In the field of animal health the use of biomarkers is less developed and less widespread than in humanhealth; however, under a One Health perspective, animal biomonitoring can provide important information on theinterfaces among humans, animals, and the environment, supporting the prevention and management of healthrisks. Therefore, a transfer of knowledge from human biomonitoring to farm or free-ranging animals is critical in arisk assessment framework from farm to humans. Advantages and critical aspects in designing and conducting integrativbiomonitoring activities in humans and animals were critically reviewed focusing on biomarkers of exposure, effect, susceptibility, anbioavailability for toxic and essential TE. Highlighted aspects include TEmetabolism, bioaccessibility, and interactions. Farm or free-ranging animals may providnoninvasive matrices suitable for evaluating animal welfare, environmental stressors, food safety, and potential risks for human health, as proposed by thinterdisciplinary concept of One Health.

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